24. Essence of the Shad-Dharshanas
Sri Sathya Sai Speaks, Vol 26 (1993)
Essence of the Shad-Dharshanas
THE Shad-Dharshanas are six great works (Philosophical systems) that shed light on Indian culture, which many consider to be based on blind belief. Explaining the Vedas explicitly, they share with the world the wisdom contained therein. The six texts are based on (a) The Veda (b) Non-belief and (c) Inner Vision. They explain incidents and events that pertain to all the three times of past, present and future. They have taught man how to do away with suffering, restlessness etc., and lead a good life by removing the dirt in him. They explicitly state that the Vedas, the Vedantha and the knower of Vedas are all one and the same. They explain the nature of the mind which is responsible for all intelligence, intellect and discrimination. These six great Dharshanas (texts) are: (a) Nyaya (b) Vaisheshika (c) Sankhya (d) Yoga (e) Puurva-Meemamsa and (f) Utthara Meemamsa.
Nyaya Dharshana forms the life for other dharshanas
Nyaya Dharshana was given by Sage Gauthama and hence it is also called Gauthama Shasthra. This forms the life for the remaining five Dharshanas. We have measures to judge the quantity and volume of material in the world. Even in respect of Divinity, a measure must be available by which the proof may be obtained. Vedas speak of four kinds of proofs. They are (1) Prathyaksha (direct perception), (2) Anumana (inference), (3) Upamana (comparison)and (4) Shabdha (sound).
Prathyaksha pramana: This is called direct proof, as it is perceived by the sense organs. These organs are only instruments. The mind enters them and helps them to function. There are some limitations on the senses like disease and imperfection, that make proof obtained by this method to be infirm. For example, a normal eye can see all colours, a jaundiced eye sees everything as yellow. Though the laddu is sweet, the tongue of a malaria patient classifies it as bitter. Here, there are two points of view. From the point of view of the matter it is sweet. But from the point of view of the senses it is bitter. It can be concluded, therefore, direct proof is not complete evidence for real justice.
Padhartha and parartha: Students must remember that the findings of ancient Indian sages were based on extensive investigations that went beyond the four regions of mind and even the Over-mind. They were the expositions of saints who had the vision of the Divinity. Many scientists today are anti-God and are proud that they have discovered something our ancient sages could not. How wrong! Out ancient seers concluded that all these findings of today pertain to the Low-mind and are associated with Padhartha (matter). Their findings were based on the study of the Over- mind, associated with the Parartha (Supreme Source) and were hence of a highly elevated nature. Before the shining splendour of these, today's investigations and discoveries look like glow worms.
Investigation of the heart is the real proof
Any enquiry made with machines is subject to errors just like the machine itself. It is the investigation of the heart that will vouch as real proof. These four methods of obtaining proof is very important because all religions attach great importance to justice. It was said of Mohammed the Prophet, that when his son committed a sin, he was awarded the 100 strokes by whip prescribed by the religion for that particular mistake. When he died after 50 strokes, the Prophet ordered that the remaining 50 be carried out on his son's grave!
Anumana pramana: This is based on doubt and inference. One sees cranes in the distance, for
example, and infers that water Could be available there. Similarly, one infers about fire by seeing the smoke, from the Svabhava (natural traits), one. makes out about the Svaruupa (the real form).
Upamana pramana: This kind of testimony is based on comparison. It enables us to
understand many things that cannot be otherwise easily understood, by comparing them to some others that can be. By studying the Prathibhasika (apparent reality) and the Vyavaharika (empirical reality), one can infer about the Paramarthika (transcendental). For example, by studying the foam (empirical reality) that originates from the waves (apparent reality), one can understand the reality of the Ocean (transcendental reality). This is possible because both the foam and the waves originate from the Ocean, and mirror its character in them. This is the example cited for all beings emanating from the Ocean of Divinity as waves.
Shabdha pramana is the ultimate proof
Shabdha pramana: It is the proof garnered on the basis of sound. It is considered to be the
ultimate proof. It is based on the testimony of the sound that the Vedas, Vedangas, Upanishaths and the Bhagavath Geetha came into existence, But, to be able to perceive this testimony, one must be properly attuned and extremely careful. It needs one to travel beyond the mind and the senses. At this stage of Samana chittha (mental equanimity), sound becomes the very form of God. The eight forms of God are Shabdha Brahma mayee (sound), Charachara mayee (All pervasiveness), Parathpara mayee (Transcendental nature), Vang mayee (speech), Nithyanandha mayee (blissful), Jyothir mayee (Effulgence), Maya mayee (illusion) and Shree mayee (prosperity).
Another significance in this is that God is most pleased with sound in the form of Sama gana (songs in praise of God). It is said that Lord Vishnu once told Naradha that He would always instal Himself wherever his devotees sang his glory with a full and devoted heart. This is the actual sound - the songs that contain the glory of the Lord. In this way, Nyaya Dharshana lays down the four methods of gathering proof. Students must listen to sounds that are Divine in nature. Nyaya Dharshana declares that it is the human conscience that is the best judge. Conscience is beyond the mind, it is the vibration of life.
Words originate in the mind. But, when it comes to the tongue (body) it appears different under different situations. When it goes beyond the mind, the word becomes Truth itself. Vedas call this truth as Bhur. It is the radiation. In the materialization of body, this truth is all-pervasive and is the vibration of that truth which is the conscience. Hence from Radiation comes Vibration; from Vibration comes Materialization.
The Vedas and their form
It is said that the word is itself Rig Veda. It is all effulgent. The mind is the Yajur Veda and life is itself Sama Veda. Life gives breath. From this breath comes the song. Hence Sama Veda is the form of life itself. The Yajur Veda is the form of the Manthras that originate in the mind. The three Vedas hence collectively state that God who is the effulgent One (as stated by Rig Veda) must be prayed to and worshipped with the Manthras (as stated in Yajur Veda) and pleased by sweet songs that are most endearing to Him (as said in the Sama Veda). God is most pleased by songs alone and not by words or speeches. Once you understand and follow the six Dharshanas, you need not do any other sadhana. Without understanding such lofty ideas, Indians are today groping in ignorance. Our ancient truths are eternal. You must know that they are based upon investigations of a kind unattained or unattainable in the world today.
Vaisheshika dharshana speaks about speciality of atoms
Sages and seers, in a state of deep dedication understood and grasped the spiritual reality in all matter. They hence gave little importance to the kind of secular education seen today. They understood that the same five elements within the human body constituted the tree, mountain and the entire creation. Only the forms differed. The saints propounded that matter is constituted of atoms, but each atom was unique in itself. The difference between two atoms is the Vishesha (speciality) and the Vaisheshika Dharshana (that which brings out the speciality) speaks about this speciality.
Matter and nature are reality: Matter is unchangeable. It is only the form that changes; for
example, the mud and water are creation of God; they are matter. The pot made out of mud and water may assume various shapes. It may break and splinter but the mud and water remain. Hence matter being unchangeable, is reality. Nature consists of the five elements that are unchangeable. For example, sound is of different kinds, but the Primordial Sound, Aum is unchanging. All the Sapthasvaras - Sa, Ri, Ga, Ma, Pa, Da, Ni are Vikaras of the Omkara (the different forms of the Primordial Sound). Matter and Nature are hence both unchanging.
Equality of men and women: This is another truth propounded by the Vaisheshika Dharshana
Men and women differ only in gender and one is not weaker than the other. Just as woman cannot work without man's help, man also cannot function without woman's help. Basing its adhara (proof) on the world, this Dharshana also states that society is in trouble when it does not accept this equality and attempts to diversify the essential unity in both men and women.
Do good to the society: When man constantly asks for happiness, he expects the society to give
it to him. He asks for peace and expects the world to give him peace. How is it possible? If he asks himself the question what he has done for the good of the society, there is no answer If he asks himself the question what he has done to promote peace in the world, there is no. answer. Only if one does good to the society and strives to promote peace in the world, can he expect good from the society and peace from world. This is another Vishesha (speciality) expressed in the Vaisheshika Dharshana.
Inherent unity of all humans
This Dharshana explains there is enormous power in the microcosm that man can harness by learning with discretion. It is this kind of study that explains the differences in the past, present, future and also the truth that remains the same in all the three times. The Shukla Yajur Veda has made an exhaustive study of unity in diversity. The same shows up in the Vaisheshika Dharshana, which states "All are birds of the same house (family); all men are children of the same mother; all are flowers of the same creeper; all are citizens of the same nation." 1. The first statement is: "All are the birds of the same house." The house is the body. It is like a nest that restricts the bird. The bird remains in the nest till it acquires wings. It then leaves its nest and flies away to freedom. In the same way, with the wings of Antharjnana (Wisdom), man can develop detachment and fly away to liberation. This much is common in all men. 2. The second statement explains: "All are children of the same mother." This mother is 'Mother Earth.' All of us are born from earth, as we are composed of mind. A newly born baby is bathed and made to sleep in the cradle. But yet, in the baby's hand can be found mud, after a few hours. This is ample proof that man's body is made of mud. 3. The third statement is: "Flowers of the same creeper" This creeper is the heart. The flower is the sweetness of the heart-to-heart relationship that each man has with another All hearts are thus inter-related.
4. The fourth statement is: "All are citizens of the same nation." We are all members of the human race. Ours is a nation of men and not animals or rocks. We form the human society. Just as the waves originate from the ocean, all the different forms come from the Sath-Chith- Anandha.
Vaisheshika appeals not to fight over petty matters
With these explanations, the Vaisheshika Dharshana points out the essential unity among all men. Thus the Vaisheshika appeals to them not to fight over petty matters. Nimitthadhara and Muuladhara: There is nothing good or bad in creation. But, as long as body consciousness exists, one has to experience both. It is said: For one who lacks intelligence and wisdom, detachment becomes a burden. For one who lacks knowledge, the body becomes a burden.
For one who lacks love, the mind becomes a burden.
Man must develop discrimination to be free from all these burdens. It enables him to understand the Truth or the basis of everything. What is this truth? One must know two things: The Nimitthadhara (instrumental) and the Muuladhara (basis). Muuladhara is the basis on which the Nimitthadhara (instrumental) builds something. Example: Mud and water are the Muuladhara - the basis. The potter becomes the Nimitthadhara, who uses them and makes pots of different shapes and sizes.
Man must control senses to the extent possible
The child Prahladha told his father Hiranyakashipu "O father! you have earned victory over all the three worlds, but are a slave to your senses." Such a one who knows not himself and is a slave to his senses, has no authority at all. He who succumbs to the enemies within, can never defeat the foes without.
Man must control his senses to the extent possible. Otherwise, he will suffer grief. Man must not commit the blunder of resigning everything to his fate.. With enquiry and determination, one can achieve anything. But today, man is becoming a slave to the mind. Man is the master of mind. He alone is a real man who understands the reality - that the microcosm is in the macrocosm and the macrocosm is in the microcosm.
Sankhya dharshana is related to numbers
It was Sage Kapila who gave to the world this philosophical text. Sankhya Dharshana is also called Kapala. Elucidating that only a person with sense control is true man, it states that it is impossible otherwise for man to live in this physical frame with infinite powers. At sight, this Dharshana appears to refute the statements in the Nyaya and Vaisheshika Dharshanas. It argues that nature is a combination of numbers Sankhya (and hence the name) - -and is full of conflicting forces. It explains how to reach God with the help of numbers. Divine exists in this Nature like oil in the oil seeds and fragrance in the flowers. Like the seeds and the flowers, Nature is just the external form of the Divine. This truth is called Sankhya or Thathvam. It is the power of enquiry that shows the Truth. Yet another testimony to this cause-effect theory was also placed forward by Sankhya Dharshana. Creation can only be made by a combination of two forces. These two forces are God and Nature.
This Dharshana says that Nature is composed of twenty-four aspects - the five organs of knowledge, the five organs of action, the five senses, the five life breaths, Manas (mind), Buddhi (intellect), Chittha (reflective mind) and Ahamkara (ego). Each one appears as a conflicting, unique force. For example: where there is fire, there can be no water. But yet the Sankhya dharshana splits these conflicting forces into just three subheads to facilitate an easy understanding - that of the Jeeva (individual), Prakrithi (nature) and Paramatma (creator). But the Sankhya does not stop with the Creator. It says that: "When, to the 24 numbers is added the Self, the number becomes 25. While the 24 numbers are matter, the 25th is the Self - the Creator. The process of evolution of the human soul begins with all the 24 numbers of matter, crosses the 25th (Self) as well and finally merges in the Shiva aspect - the 26th. While the 'Self' forms a part of the human being in the heart, it is also in the Nature. He is only a noble one who can see the two-in-one aspect of the Self being within as well as in the Nature. Man is like a bridge between the visible Nature and the invisible all-pervasive Divinity. He is hence called madhyama - the middle one. What we consider as invisible is what is actually guiding the consequences contrary to our belief. Mind is a white paper on which is recorded the life-records of several births of ours. It is called the Chittha. He who is hidden in this and does the recording is called Chithraguptha - the hidden recorder. This power is also called the Prajna Shakthi - the Radiation. This Radiation vibrates the Life force (Vibration) that helps this body to be alive and function - Materialization.
What is Moksha?
It is not something that needs to be specially earned. The Sankhya Dharshana explicitly states that actually, no special effort need be made to attain liberation. When man realises his true form, he is liberated. When man destroys all the desires in him, he is liberated - Moha Kshaya is Moksha. In terms of numbers, the Dharshanas explain that as long as man identifies with 24 numbers and the Purusha (Self) aspect, he can never realise that he is the truth. It is only when he travels beyond to the Super-mind that he can fathom the Truth. That is the Divine mind. It is sacred, and, from this stage, one can step on to the Illuminated-mind from where is visible only the Higher-mind and nothing else. When the roof is removed, one can see the sky from where he is sitting. Similarly when the roof of the Lower-mind is removed, one can see the Higher-mind, and finally the Over-mind. In this way, by showing the numbers, this text helps in guiding man from Nature to God.
Start the process now to reach the goal of life
Yet another fact elucidated in the Sankhya Dharshana is the relation between man and Atma. Atma can never be obtained by investigations of the secular kind. It is natural and allpervading, whether the body is present or not. For example, though one cannot see the electricity flowing through the wires, the moment a bulb is connected to a socket attached to the wire, the bulb glows, proving the presence of electricity. Similarly, the Atma stays permanently. Only the body comes and goes.
Saint Thyagaraja sang that however high a bird flies, it will have to come down and rest on a tree at some time. Similarly man has to submit to Divinity one day whatever be his reservations. That is the goal of life. Instead of realizing it at some later stage of life it is better to do it now and start the process.
This Dharshana states that it is a demonic quality to forget God. Man must remove the demonic quality, develop the human quality and reach divinity. Just as one blows off the ash to see the latent fire, one must blow away the ashes of bad qualities on the self with the air of Namasmarana. Just as one removes the moss on the water with-the hands to reveal crystal clear water, man must remove the moss of sensual pleasures with the hands of good-acts. Namasmarana is the best way prescribed for the Kali age to attain liberation. When man submits to illusion, man himself becomes illusion. This illusion is an aspect of the 25th number. When we understand the secret between the illusion and Divinity, we ourselves become the 26th aspect Divinity. One cannot gather all the five organs of action and knowledge, and the five senses together. But exercising control and following some limits, Divinity maybe realised. A scrupulous adherence to discipline is essential. In England, it was discovered that when a farmer fed and milked the cows at erratic times due to some tensions in the family, the quality of milk was much poorer than what was originally obtained when feeding and milking was done on a strict schedule. That is the importance of sticking to discipline in life.
Nature does not deceive
Man must never neglect anything however small. Tiny termites may destroy an entire block of wood.
The Nyaya dharshana states the differences between two atoms. But the Sankhya dharshana states that the entire creation is in the microcosm an atomic structure. So. why talk of a separate atomic structure? God is this microcosm. That is the significance of the Vedhic statement: "Anoraneeyan Mahatho Maheeyan" (Smaller than the smallest, mightier than the mightiest).
Pathanjali's eight-fold yoga
Sage Pathanjali has prescribed eight kinds of Yoga in his text for man to enjoy health and happiness. These eight are Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Prathyahara, Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi. It states explicitly that Yoga is not just for the ochre clad monks, renunciates in the forest and celibates. Modern investigations show that in today's machine age, it is the ordinary man who actually needs Yoga. Man struggles the whole day to feed and foster his family. This exertion and motive makes him restless and robs him of his sleep. He then resorts to artificial means to induce sleep and rest to the body, like taking sleeping pills or taking intoxicating drinks. This artificial induction has disastrous side effects and combined with the lack of rest, causes heart diseases, blood pressure, etc. Research has hence concluded that Yoga is ideally suited for all these problems. The sacred texts were all born in India. But due to the rise of blind beliefs that are consequences of modern education and civilization, Indians show scant interest or belief in these works of brilliance. It is the misfortune of Indians that today, these sacred texts are much more fostered and believed abroad, who were quick to realise their importance. They investigated and understood that due to lack of rest, the body weakens. This causes the breathing process to speed up. This in turn spoils the lungs. As the blood circulation also speeds up, a stage arrives when blood pressure sets in. Medicine cannot cure it completely and hence Yoga is prescribed. This was a finding, supported by researchers at the International University in America and some others at the University of Hawaii. Some of these researchers even reversed their views on Yoga after they saw the results of their studies.
A healthy mind and body is essential
It was shown that the bliss and vitality enjoyed after two hours of sleep, could be got by just twelve minutes of Yoga. Though man can adjust without food, he cannot do the same without sleep and rest. Lack of sleep is a common problem in several countries, including India. This extracts a heavy toll on one's health. To achieve the four goals of life - Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha - a healthy mind and body is essential. In old Mexico, an experiment conducted on the inmates of a prison showed amazing results. While previously the inmates were all restless and sick, after the practice of Yoga, within two months, they were all hale and healthy. Yet other investigations resulted in inducing addicts of drugs, smoking, drinking, etc. to give up their habit. It is currently estimated that about 3 to 4 lakh students abroad practice Yoga. In India, the birth-place of Yoga, there is not much progress or interest. Devaki was said to have lamented that though she had suffered the birth pangs, it was given to Yashodha to enjoy and foster the Baby Krishna. In the same way, though Patanjali gave up his life to experience and share this great Yoga in India, it has only fallen on barren soil. The main cause for this is the lack of Shraddha (Interest) and Bhakthi (faith) in not only Yoga but also in all the scriptures.
Importance of discipline
Pathanjali prescribes some major disciplines as prerequisites for deriving the benefits of yoga, notably with respect to diet. The food taken is to be both Mitha and Hitha, (limited and nutritious). Since food and water are only medicines to cure the ailment of hunger and thirst, they should be taken in that spirit. Taste should not be the yardstick to eat food, for it is only to protect the body that one eats, after all. Foreigners realised this and found that by reducing chilies, sai.t, tamarind etc. from their diet and by eating limitedly, they could stay healthy. Pathanjali states that excess food weakens the nerves, causing blood pressure problems. Man becomes prone to excitement easily. Lack of health among men also causes agitations and restlessness in society. In Germany, a research conducted on monkeys showed that the primates, when practised sitting silent for 3 to 4 hours daily, soon became very intelligent, developed their memory and were highly enthusiastic- -in some cases, even more than man! A similar experiment on a student considered a dullard and roguish, showed that with the help of Yoga, in just a few months, the boy became one of the most intelligent and well-behaved boys. Encouraged, even the boy's 70-year-old father took to Yoga. Soon his body was functioning with the vitality of a 50-year-old man! The importance of Pranayama: This Yoga consists of three parts, each to be done one after the other. It starts with Puuraka, then Kumbhaka and finishes with Rechaka. Puuraka: This is the inhalation of breath. One must note carefully the time taken for this process, the duration of time can be justified as per the capacity of the person. Care must be taken to see that gasping and such kinds of exhaustion must not occur during the process. Kumbhaka: The breath taken in must-be retained for the same duration as it had taken for the inhaling process.
Rechaka: Once thus retained, it must be exhaled in the same time limit as that taken for inhaling and retention.
Caution to be exercised while doing Pranayama
While doing Pranayama, one must not concentrate or aim to hold the breath for as long as possible. One must instead concentrate on assuring that all the three processes take the same amount of time. Otherwise, this process spoils the lungs. Doing the same under an inexperienced teacher also can prove to be disastrous. The next step is to breathe in through the right nostril alone. This is the Ida. One must then retain the breath at the Sushumna (between the eye-brows) for the same time duration as that taken for inhaling, then release the breath through the left nostril only, again taking same time. This last step is Pingala.
The Yoga Dharshana combines with the Nyaya and Vaisheshika Dharshanas in many of its contents. Through the Nyaya Dharshana, one understands that a proper decision ought to be made regarding the measure to be appropriately selected for the Yoga. This is evident in the way caution is advised in limiting the time factor during the Pranayama, taking into consideration the individual capacity.
These good thoughts are Divine thoughts and Yoga prescribes a process called Angarpanam as the method to achieve this end. Angararpanam means to offer all of one's limbs and organs to the Lord. It does not mean to cut them off and place them at the Lord's feet. It means to use these limbs and organs only in actions that will please God. This is where, the importance of discrimination is stressed in Yoga. When such Angarpanam is done, real Anandha results. Bliss is related to the heart. When used in pursuit of sensual pleasures, only happiness results. This is called Santhosha, as it means some + thosha - limited happiness. This Santhosha is related to the head, the centre of responsibility. One must hence take care to think well, contemplate on the thought and then put. it into action. This is the real 3 HV's - the values of Head, Heart and Hands. It is the unity of thought, word and deed.
Dharana can be done without doing Pranayama
Students must cultivate tolerance to the extent possible. Though difficult at first, it will become second nature to you with constant practice, as stated in the Bhagawath Geetha. Even if students find Pranayama difficult, they can still do Dharana. It is the singlepointed concentration of some chosen object. It is not very difficult. If practised well, it leads us on to Dhyana (meditation) easily. It is said that with the power of Yoga, one can control anything, including the evil from. entering the mind through the senses, in any form. Senses are like doors to houses, where only authorised personnel may enter. Yoga helps strengthen this guard. This absolves us of animal qualities like ego, restlessness, fickleness, anger, jealousy etc. In the first place, if you see God in each form, within three days. you can feel the Divine feelings latent in you beginning to develop. Otherwise, even 30 generations of sadhana will be of no use.
Puurva meemamsa and Utthara meemamsa
Sage Jaimini's concentrated and persistent life-long efforts resulted in this work. Meemamsa means enquiry. It is called Puurva because it was in existence even before the Vedas. The Puurva Meemamsa deals with the regulations and methodologies of devotion and wisdom. Both are related to the Karma kanda (the field of action). It traces the route to realising Brahman as first starting with Karma, then on to Dharma and finally to Brahma. This is mentioned as Karma Jignasu, Dharma Jignasu, and finally Brahma Jignasu. Karma Jignasu: It pertains to all the actions performed by man. Even breathing and blood circulation are described as a kind of Karma. In terms of worldly explanations, it may be compared to the mixing together of ingredients like salt, tamarind, chilli, etc. to prepare chutney. Just as the ingredients must be mixed in correct proportions, the actions in daily life must also be in ideal proportions.
Dharma Jignasu: This may be compared to the tasting of the chutney made. Tasting brings out any defects in it. This. may hence be compared to the identification of defects. Brahma Jignasu: Having identified the lapse, rectifying it is the Brahma Jignasu state. It may be said that experiencing worldly life is the Karma Jignasu; Understanding that there is no permanent joy obtainable from this world is the Dharma Jignasu and introducing this bliss into daily life through introspection is the Brahma Jignasu. Man is unable to absolve himself of all worries and anxieties despite worshipping all the deities. This is because he has forgotten moral and ethical living methods and takes the. body to be the real self. When questioned as to one's identity, he introduces himself by his name first. When asked for more details, he gives his profession next. When probed still further, he names his country. But man is not the name or the profession or the country. He is the Atma. The correct answer is "I am Atma." One may assume an alias; one may change his profession or even migrate abroad in search of better living. But, his true self is changeless.
Shivam without Atma becomes shavam
When a person keeps saying "I" and "Mine," "I" actually is related to the Atma; "Mine" is related to the body - Dhehi and Dheham. It is only when all the organs and limbs combine together that a body results. Similarly, the Atma is a combination of Mind, Intellect and Samskara. It is the Atma that enters and prompts the organs and limbs to operate. A body with Atma in it is hence called Shivam (auspicious). When the Atma leaves the body, all organs and limbs come to a stand-still. The body becomes inert. Hence such a body is called Shavam (dead-body).
Atma is a combination of Mind, Intellect and Samskaras (tendencies). The mind thinks, reflects and forms thoughts based on the promptings of Atma. The intellect, endowed with the triple power of discrimination, analyzing and deciding also functions due to Atma. Samskara means elevating culture and is the basis of rebirth. Our present actions become seeds of samskara that decide the fruit in the next life. It is hence advised that doing good and constant contemplation of God, will enable one to be peaceful at the end of one's life. This can surely be achieved by constant practice, as is stated in the Bhagavath Geetha. Good actions lead to good samskaras, that confers a good birth.
Selective adherence to Karma kanda
Jaimini investigates the paradox that though the body is temporary, why emphasis is laid on our Karma (bodily action). This, he concluded, was necessary to purify the mind. Hence the body must enter into actions. But today, people take from this Karma kanda whatever part is useful to them and discard the others. A story is said about a lazy celibate, who came to a house to beg for alms. The kind lady, though it was an odd time, did not want to break a family tradition. She requested the celibate to have his bath and ablutions at the river nearby, while she cooked something for him. The lazy person answered that "Lord Govindha's name is itself a hearty bath." The wise lady saw through the fake sadhu (mendicant) and countered: "Very well then! The same Govindha's name will also be your food." It is because of this kind of selective adherence to Karma kanda, that man has become so impure.
People argue that Nature is a natural entity, in the sense that, no one has created it. Matter and energy need someone to combine them. Oil, wick and container may be present. But it needs someone to strike a match and light the lamp. Though the subject and intelligence are present, a teacher is needed to impart a proper guidance for being educated. Jaimini states that good education must impart good habits, ideals, truth, responsibility and discipline besides intellectual knowledge.
Puurva meemamsa deals with anger control
To achieve all these, Jaimini advises purity. Without this inner purity; Divinity is a distant illusion. Clouds arise from the sun and cover the. sun itself. But, it is a temporary effect. Man must also have patience to wipe away the ignorance that covers his self. Patience is another virtue mentioned in the Puurva Meemamsa.
Method to control anger: The text advocates a very logical method to counter obstacles. For
example when grief strikes, it advises that one must think of joyful incidents. This gives joy. It also conducts enquiries into the fields of Ajnana-Prajnana. Control of anger and overcoming the obstacles in daily life, is also dealt with. The Puurva Meemamsa states that one must slowly analyze the situation when angry. By the time a conclusion is reached, tempers cool down considerably. One may also do any one of the following to control temper: (1) drink a glass of cold water; (2) see the mirror, where your distorted features will repulse you enough to cool you down; (3) walk fast and alone. This speeds up your circulation that draws away anger; (4) open a tap and watch your pitch of song with that of the falling water. In all these attempts, the time and attention definitely help cool tempers.
Do not give in to excitement
One must try to involve Utthara Meemamsa into practice as well, to the extent possible. Man must not give in to excitement. Arjuna was highly perturbed when Krishna was leaving to make peace with Kauravas, as a last ditch attempt. He entreated that a war was best suited as the Kauravas would not concede the demands of the Pandavas. But, the same Arjuna collapsed at the sight of his grandfather, teachers, cousins, relatives and friends lined up to do battle. He did not want to live with their blood on his hands. Hence students must stay calm and composed. You need not become excited to acquire something. If it is destined to reach you, it shall be delivered to you wherever you are. You must remember meanwhile to concentrate on protecting your righteousness; which in turn will protect you. "Dharmo Rakshathi Rakshithah," it is said. Hence, while following your daily routines, contemplate always on God. Wherever you are, whatever you do, do it with divine feelings.
Indian Culture and Spirituality at Brindhavan.
– Sri Sathya Sai Baba